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David Research paper over veternarians on January 11, Shares Without question, vaccination has been one of the most important interventions in disease prevention that has ever been developed. In spite of the demonstrable, and ongoing, success of vaccination, a small, but vocal, anti-vaccination movement has developed in human medicine, occasionally buttressed by horrifying instances of adverse reactions, as well as the occasional publications in scientific journals vis, the Wakefield debacle.
Vaccine development continues, and human health continues to benefit, as new vaccines are developed and tested prior to release.
In veterinary medicine, vaccination has also proven to be a boon for animal health. Diseases such as canine parvovirus and canine distemper, feline leukemia, or equine tetanus, have been greatly reduced — in some cases, nearly eliminated — by vaccination.
Yet, in spite of the success of animal vaccination, genuine questions remain as to ideal intervals for booster vaccination. There are several reasons for this. First and foremost is the fact that animal vaccinations are not subjected to the same rigorous pre-market testing that is required for the release of a human vaccine.
Otherwise stated, animal vaccines can be released without large, controlled challenge studies that are necessary prior to the release of human vaccines. Historically, many animal vaccinations have been given annually.
These recommendations were based on the best available knowledge at the time. As research has continued, it appears that some vaccines may protect animals from disease for longer than was previously felt. This information has been incorporated into some vaccine guidelines, e.
Still, in spite of good data, new recommendations are not always adopted in a timely fashion, for a variety of reasons, which might include difficulty in disseminating the information, as well as practitioner comfort with schedules that have been effective at disease prevention in the past.
As such, it is essentially impossible to make firm, science-based guidelines when it comes to animal vaccination. That said, when harm can be shown, it is investigated, e. As a result of such investigations, newer protocols, and newer methods of vaccine administration are being developed. Unfortunately, there is currently no way to develop an individualized vaccination program for animals that can be said to assure protection from disease and completely prevent adverse reactions.
Still, in general, animal owners must currently rely on the experience of individual practitioners, rather than sound science, for vaccine recommendations for their animals. For more information about animal vaccines, and the vaccine-related controversies, see the Vaccination Principles of the American Veterinary Medical Association, updated in After completing an internship in equine medicine and surgery at Iowa State University, he entered private equine practice in southern California.
Ramey is an author of numerous books on equine health care, and a prominent voice for the application of evidence-based standards to veterinary medicine.
He was a member of the task for on "Therapeutic Options" of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, as well as a member of the task force that wrote the current guidelines for the use of "Complementary and Alternative" veterinary medicine for the American Veterinary Association.
He has published numerous articles and books pertaining to "alternative" approaches to veterinary medicine, including the "Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine Considered," co-authored with world renowned veterinary ethicist Dr.Statement of research paper veterinary career.
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Jun 11, · Best Research Paper Topics It is well known fact that writing a research paper is hard. The biggest problem students usually struggle with is finding research paper topic.
The main difficulty is that topic is the most important element of the whole research paper. Paper Topics for Microbiology: Bacteria and Viruses. You may want to start your paper by choosing a specific bacterium, Archean, or virus and subsequently focus to something you find particularly interesting about that organism.
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