Learning Objectives This is a beginning to intermediate level course. After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Outline the history of ADHD as a mental disorder.
For permission, please email: Abstract Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as perception, attention, memory, and thinking. An important and core cognitive process is memory, which is commonly associated with the storing and remembering of environmental information.
An interesting issue in memory research is on ways to enhance memory performance, and thus, remembering of information. Can colour result in improved memory abilities? The present paper highlights the relationship between colours, attention, and memory performance.
The significance of colour in different settings is presented first, followed by a description on the nature of human memory. The role of attention and emotional arousal on memory performance is discussed next.
The review of several studies on colours and memory are meant to explain some empirical works done in the area and related issues that arise from such studies. How the human cognitive system deals with the memorization process remains the centre of research among cognitive psychologists.
One of the most interesting and challenging questions in contemporary memory research is on ways to enhance human memory performance.
Many variables have been proposed to contribute to the retrieval operations and one of the variables is colour, which will be discussed thoroughly in the present paper.
Colour is believed to be the most important visual experience to human beings 2. It functions as a powerful information channel to the human cognitive system and has been found to play a significant role in enhancing memory performance 3. Colour can be very effective in learning and educational setting, marketing, communication, or even sport.
This shows the importance of colour in making the information or message more attractive to the public. In the educational setting, higher demand is put on excellent academic achievement.
The extent to which students utilize their cognitive abilities is also important and may contribute to better academic achievement 7.
The cognitive abilities of the students refer to the way the students perceive, pay attention, remember, think, and understand the lessons. There need to be strategies to facilitate the learning process and colours can play a role in motivating students to learn and profit from their educational experiences.
In addition, in the clinical setting, specific interventions involving colours can be introduced to deal with memory-related problems such as learning difficulty, autism, dyslexia, and others.
With the use of colour in the intervention, it can help patients to follow and understand the learning program better. Clinical intervention for patients with dyslexia using colour have been proven to be effective in reducing patient difficulties in reading 8.
The same approach is also used to help autistic patients. Colour is also used to treat patients with Alzheimer Disease.
Alzheimer Disease is a neurodegenerative form of dementia which deteriorates memory abilities Recently, there is a growing interest in the role of the non-biological or environmental factors associated with Alzheimer Disease Thus, the use of colours to improve the memory performance of Alzheimer Disease patients can be practised.
In fact, research has shown that vivid colour cues can help to enhance the shortterm memory performance of Alzheimer Disease patients A plethora of studies have been conducted to understand the role of colour in enhancing memory performance. Back inFarley and Grant conducted experiments on the influence of colour on attention and found that coloured multimedia presentations resulted in better attention and memory performance More experimental works exploring the influence of colour on the human cognitive processes were conducted since then 14 — Models of Human Memory Human memory is commonly dichotomised to involve a short-term and longer-term memory storage.
This dualistic nature of memory was proposed by the early investigators of memory, such as William James, and Waugh and Norman An experiment is described which shows that a nonverbal task performed concurrently with list presentation causes a decrement in primary-memory recall .
Jul 29, · This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance.
The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive . N-back is a kind of mental training intended to expand your working memory (WM), and hopefully your intelligence (IQ 1)..
The theory originally went that novel 2 cognitive processes tend to overlap and seem to go through one central barnweddingvt.com it happens, WM predicts and correlates with IQ 3 and may use the same neural networks 4, suggesting that WM might be IQ 5.
relied on semantic memory, whereas free recall is an episodic memory task. Likewise, whereas the free recall paradigm requires continuous retrieval of multiple items, the PRP study utilized discrete retrievals.
Hence, the in-terference observed with the discrete PRP tasks may be a special case not reflective of dual-task performance in general. The problems with short term memory According to the multi-store model of memory, short term memory is a unitary and inflexible concept that has the simple properties of phonological encoding, a capacity of 7 plus or minus 2 items, and a duration of up to about 30 seconds.
Previous research on factors that influence divided attention have focused on resource allocation, age of participants, task difficulty and familiarity, practice effects as well as brain areas that control dual task performance.