Ice cover on Earth is changing. We have records going back decades, measuring the mass balance of glaciers in the Alps.
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Abstract The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported.
Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed.
The review also discusses the use of remotely Environmental modelling through gis essay rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling.
With the availability of remotely-sensed data from different sensors of various platforms with a wide range of spatiotemporal, radiometric and spectral resolutions has made remote sensing as, perhaps, the best source of data for large scale applications and study.
In this review, we summarize some of the most commonly used applications of the technique in environmental resources mapping and modeling. Applications of remote sensing in hydrological modeling, watershed mapping, energy and water flux estimation, fractional vegetation cover, impervious surface area mapping, urban modeling and drought predictions based on soil water index derived from remotely-sensed data is reported.
The review also summarizes the different eras of sensors development and remote sensing and future directions of the remote sensing applications. Evolution and advances in remote sensing satellites and sensors for the study of environments There are eight distinct eras of remote sensing; some running parallel in time periods, but are distinctly unique in terms of technology, concept of utilization of data, applications in science, and data characteristics e.
These are discussed below: Airborne remote sensing era: The airborne remote sensing era evolved during the first and the Second World War Avery and Berlin,Colwell, During this time remote sensing was mainly used for the purposes of surveying, reconnaissance, mapping, and military surveillance.
Rudimentary spaceborne satellite remote sensing era: Spy satellite remote sensing era: During the peak of the cold war, spy satellites such as Corona Dwayne et al. Data was collected, almost exclusively, for military purposes.
The data was not digital, but was produced as hard copies. However, the spin-off of the remote sensing developed for military purposes during the above 3 eras spilled over to mapping and slowly into environmental and natural resources applications.
Meteorological satellite sensor remote sensing era: This was an era when data started being available in digital format and were analyzed using exclusive computer hardware and software.
This was also an era when global coverage became realistic and environmental applications practical.
The Landsat-6 failed during launch. These satellites have high resolution nominal 2. At this resolution, only Landsat is currently gathering data with global wall to wall coverage. This is, by far, the most significant era that kick started truly wide environmental application of remote sensing data locally and globally.
Earth Observing System era: Applications of sensor data have become wide spread and applications have multiplied. Institutions and individuals who never used remote sensing have begun to take an interest in remote sensing.
The new millennium era Bailey et al. These are basically satellites and sensors for the next generation.
These include Earth Observing-1 carrying the first spaceborne hyperspectral data. The private industry era began at the end of the last millennium and beginning of this millennium see Stoney, This era consists of a number of innovations. Second, a revolutionary means of data collection.
This is typified by Rapideye satellite constellation of 5 satellites, having almost daily coverage of any spot on earth at 6. Third, is the introduction of micro satellites, some under disaster monitoring constellation DMCwhich are designed and launched by surrey satellite technology Ltd.
Fourth, is the innovation by Google Earth http:Dec 11, · Remote Sensing Sensors and Applications in Environmental Resources Mapping and Modelling. (GIS) tools to manipulate, process, store and retrieve such data and efficient computing system, the application of remote sensing to water resources has been increasing in recent years.
Geographic Information Science: It is the general term for mapping technologies which was used by different sectors and it was the foundation for Geographic Information Systems. It spatial data in the form of Digital Maps Digital Aerial Photos Remotely sensed Imagery Global positioning system Coordinates.
|Environments | An Open Access Journal from MDPI||Water6 4; doi: Climate change and urbanization are converging to challenge city drainage infrastructure due to their adverse impacts on precipitation extremes and the environment of urban areas.|
|Observing glacier change from space||It is a science, technology and method concerned with capturing, storing, manipulating and analyzing spatial and geographical data.|
|Overview of remote sensing in environmental studies/modeling||Prior to this he was the founding Head of the Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University which in turn was preceded by a successful international career in consulting engineering. Reviews This well-written, second edition is a significant and needed contribution to the understanding of the increasing interaction between geospatial disciplines and tools - i.|
Environmental Modeling with GIS and Remote Sensing derives from a training course run by ITC for professionals and managers in the environmental sciences, detailing the applications of remote sensing and GIS for environmental modeling and assessment.
the GIS project is applicable on other similar areas. The fundamental part of the environmental models is focused on modelling of surface-water quality, soil pollution and their relation to human activities and air. A whole host of resources are available through the ADD. The SCAR Antarctic Digital Database is managed by the British Antarctic Survey and the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research.
Users can use a map viewer to download multiple features across Antarctica in various formats. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.